Total CholesterolTotal Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the bloodstream and in all of your body’s cells. Cholesterol is an important part of a healthy body because it’s used for producing cell membranes, some hormones and serves other needed bodily functions. When there is too much cholesterol in your blood, it builds up in your arteries and can eventually increase your chances of developing heart disease.7
HDL CholesterolHDL Cholesterol is known as the “good” cholesterol because high levels of HDL can protect against heart disease. Medical experts believe HDL carries LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and removes excess cholesterol from arterial plaque, slowing its buildup. Higher HDL is desirable. Lower HDL may increase the risk of heart disease.8
Triglycerides are a form of fat that the body uses to store energy. Elevated triglycerides can be due to heredity, being overweight/obese, physical inactivity, cigarette smoking, excess alcohol consumption or a diet very high in carbohydrates.8
LDL CholesterolLDL Cholesterol, or “bad” cholesterol, is a thick, hard deposit, or “plaque” that can narrow the arteries and make them less flexible. Blocked arteries in the heart can increase your risk for heart attack or stroke.8
GlucoseGlucose is a type of sugar that travels through the bloodstream and is the primary source of energy for your cells. Glucose levels that remain high over time may be indicative of diabetes which can cause damage to the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels.3,4
A1CA1C is also called HbA1c or hemoglobin A1C. Hemoglobin is part of the red blood cells. The A1C complex is formed when the glucose in the blood binds irreversibly to hemoglobin (glycates). The higher the glucose level in the blood, the more that binds to the hemoglobin. Therefore, A1C values are proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood. An A1C result may be displayed in either percentage (%) units or mmol/mol units, depending on country. A1C reflects the amount of the hemoglobin that is glycated. Hemoglobin remains glycated for the lifespan of the red blood cell, about 90-120 days. Therefore, the A1C test reflects average blood glucose control for the past 2-3 months.1,3
CotinineCotinine is a product formed after the chemical nicotine enters the body. Nicotine is a chemical found in tobacco products, including cigarettes and chewing tobacco. Measuring cotinine in people’s blood is the most reliable way to determine exposure to nicotine for both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Measuring cotinine is preferred to measuring nicotine because cotinine remains in the body longer.11,12
CreatinineCreatinine is a chemical waste product in the blood that passes through the kidneys to be filtered and eliminated in urine. The chemical waste is a by-product of normal muscle contractions. Creatinine is made from creatine and creatine phosphate, a supplier of energy to the muscles.3,13
10. Jarvis, M.J.; Promatesta, P.; Erens, B.; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A., Measuring nicotine intake in a population surveys: Comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2003, 5 (3), 349-355.
11. Agaku, I. T.; Vardavas, C.I.; Connolly, G.N., Cigarette rod length and its impact on serum cotinine and urinary total NNAL levels, NHANES 2007-2010 Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014, 16 (1), 100-107.